Module One: Motivation and Reward Systems
This includes the motivational process, motivation drivers which describe achievement motivation, need category systems, motivational and maintenance factors, behaviour modifications and re-inforcement, goal setting and its effects. It also discusses motivation drivers in detail which includes: Achievement motivation, affiliation motivation, competence motivation, power motivation. This module also looks at managerial application of the drivers in form of Human needs, the types of needs, variation in needs, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, lower –order needs, higher- order needs; interpreting the hierarchy of needs; Herzbergs two factor model, maintenance and motivational factors.
The module further introduces the Job content and context in terms of Intrinsic and extrinsic motivators; interpreting the two-faced model; Alderfer’s E-R-G model, the comparison of the Maslow, Herzberg and Alderfers models. The module will also look at the behavior modifications, the law of effect, alternative consequences, schedules of reinforcement; fixed interval; variable interval, fixed ration, variable ratio; Interpreting behaviour modifications; social learning theory; Goal setting: elements of goal setting, goal acceptance, specificity, challenge, and International perspectives on motivation.
Module Four: Motivational Applications
This module looks at the important areas the expectancy model of motivation, how employees perceive their needs, equity comparisons, the process of attribution, the role of the self fulfilling prophesy, the relationship among motivational models. The expectancy model; the three factors, valence, expectancy, instrumentality. Valence x Expectancy instrumentality= Motivation. How the model works; the impact of uncertainty, evaluating the expectancy model; advantages, limitations. Comparison models; the equity model, interpreting the equity model, the attribution model, nature of attributions, related ideas, application of attribution. Interpreting motivational models; micromotivation, the macromotivation model.
Module Five: Managing Communication
The module looks at the two way communication process, barriers to communication, factors leading to effective communication, downward and upward communications problems, the role of performance feedback , questioning, and listening, communication networks, electronic communication. Communication fundamentals: importance of communication, the two-way communication process. Developing an idea; encode, transmit, receive, decode, accept, use, provide feedback. Potential problems: communication barriers, personal barriers, physical barriers and semantic barriers. Communication symbols: words, pictures, action (nonverbal communication). Downward communication; pre-requisites and problems, communication overload, acceptance of a communication, communication needs, job instructions, performance feedback, news, social support. Upward communication; difficulties, upward – communication practices, questioning, listening, employee meetings, an open door policy and participation in social groups. Other forms of communication; lateral communication, networks, ombudsperson, electronic mail, telecommuting.